2004 Fellows

Claire Applegarth

Fall 2004 Fellow, Arms Control Association

Education: Harvard University, MPP International Security, 2009
Smith College, BA Government, 2004

Issues Covered: Nuclear Nonrproliferation Treaty; Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; U.S.-Russian nuclear arsenals; cooperative threat reduction programs

Major Fellowship Activities: Applegarth co-wrote a report titled Major Proposals to Strengthen the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty: A Resource Guide as part of ACA’s “Campaign to Strengthen the NPT.”  The report describes key government proposals in 14 areas relating to the global nuclear nonproliferation system and analyzes the positions of major states and blocs on the proposals.  It demonstrates that there is widespread agreement among world leaders that the nonproliferation system must be reinforced, but that there are also significant differences as to how to achieve that goal.  The report was distributed to ACA members, members of Congress, and to UN diplomats.  She has written several news articles for Arms Control Today: “Foreign Ministers Affirm CTBT Support,” “Russia, U.S. Bolster Regional Nuclear Security Following Terrorist Attacks,” “Brazil Permits Greater IAEA Inspection,” “G8 Global Partnership Selects Ukraine for Nonproliferation Funds,” “Brazil, IAEA Reach Inspections Agreement,” “U.S. Says It Will Complete Russian Nuclear Security Upgrades by 2008,” “Modest Hike in Threat Reduction Budget,” “U.S., Russia Seek Help on Plutonium,” “Threat Reduction Budget Detailed,” and “UN Adopts Nuclear Terrorism Convention; Treaty Seven Years in the Making.”  She co-wrote “Iran Agrees to Suspension of Uranium-Enrichment Activities” for the ACT news update and compiled “The 2000 NPT Review Conference And the 13 Practical Steps: A Summary” for ACT.  She helped organize a strategy meeting on the CTBT attended by close to 30 experts in the field that produced a work plan addressing testing issues.  She helped organize a briefing on the NPT Review Conference that ACA, the Carnegie Endowment, and Reaching Critical Will hosted for diplomats at the UN on April 20, 2005.  She also assisted in the April 5 press conference where ACA released a statement on the NPT signed by over 20 experts in the field.

Applegarth attended many policy briefings, including “The Proliferation of Uranium Enrichment Technology” sponsored by WIIS, “U.S. Foreign Policy After the Elections: Where Do We Go From Here?” by the World Affairs Council with the American Academy of Diplomacy, an NGO/DPI Briefing on WMD at the UN, a “Weaponization of Space” panel of NGO experts at the UN, “The Top Threat to America’s Security: A Nuclear 9/11” at Democratic Leadership Council-Blueprint Magazine luncheon featuring Graham Allison, a talk entitled “The Road to Nuclear Security” on Lawrence Korb’s new publication of the same name, featuring panelists Korb, Joe Cirincione, and Robert McNamara, a lunch presentation at the Woodrow Wilson Center on “Nuclear Nonproliferation: Change and Challenges,” by Graham Andrew of the IAEA, a Wilson Center lunch talk entitled “U.S. Counterproliferation Policy” by Michael Nacht of UC-Berkeley, a CTR working group roundtable session on nuclear submarine dismantlement at Global Green USA, and the International Nuclear Materials Policy Forum in Alexandria, Virginia. She also attended one day of the Peace and Security Community Annual Strategy Retreat, a Peace and Security Initiative meeting, attended and helped put together the follow-up summary/briefing to ACA’s strategy meeting on nuclear testing and attended ACA’s press conference entitled “Controlling the Spread of Ballistic Missiles,” a briefing by Cato Institute scholars called “The Future of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty: Prospects and Problems,” a RANSAC briefing entitled “Evolving Russian Nuclear Security Risks and U.S.–Russian Nuclear Security Cooperation,” a briefing on the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, a Global Green USA CTR working group roundtable talk on nuclear submarine dismantlement, a Woodrow Wilson Center talk on “U.S. Counterproliferation Policy,” a Carnegie Endowment luncheon talk launching Universal Compliance, ACA’s February 3 panel on the NPT, and a Department of Energy briefing on the budget release. She attended the opening week of the NPT Review Conference in New York from May 2-6, including many side panel events held by NGOs and some governmental briefings. She has also participated in a couple informal roundtable discussions on the NPT Review Conference, including one with Brazilian Ambassador Sergio Duarte, the President of the Review Conference, and another with Paul Meyer, Canada’s disarmament ambassador to the UN.  She also participated in a four-day Model UN Conference, where she represented the United States in the NPT Review Conference.

Current Activities: Applegarth is a Cybersecurity Lead at MITRE Corporation, where she helps develop cyber policy and strategy for government agencies in the law enforcement and homeland security fields. Prior to MITRE, she was an Associate at Booz Allen Hamilton working on cybersecurity, communications, and WMD risk analysis. She received a Masters in Public Policy at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government in 2009, where she focused on international security policy.  She had a Deans’ Fellowship for both years of study at the Kennedy School.  In Summer 2008 she received a fellowship with the Council of Women World Leaders that enabled her to work in the Office of the Foreign Minister of Liberia in Monrovia.  She helped organize the International Colloquium on Women’s Empowerment, Leadership Development, and International Peace and Security, a landmark event that co-convened by President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf of Liberia and President Tarja Halonen of Finland in March 2009.  Prior to graduate school she was a volunteer for five months for the Benin Education Fund, a nonprofit that seeks to improve access to education for Beninese youth.  She helped develop and write project proposals and provided guidance on the organization’s management. Previously she was a Research Analyst with the Homeland Security/Intel team at DFI International. where she researched and wrote lessons learned and best practices in emergency response and homeland security for the Department of Homeland Security’s Lessons Learned Information Sharing (LLIS) program.  She also interned at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in the International Security Program where she worked on the “Strengthening the Global Partnership” project, which focuses on nonproliferation and threat reduction issues.


Elizabeth Eraker Palley

Fall 2004 Fellow, Center for Nonproliferation Studies

Education: University of California at Berkeley, JD, 2011
Stanford University, BA History, 2004

Issues Covered: Dual-use export controls, including Missile Technology Control Regime; chemical and biological weapons; WMD terrorism

Major Fellowship Activities: Eraker co-wrote a report, “Duelfer Report Uncovers Complex Arms Procurement Network; Links to Asian Countries and Companies,” analyzing the contents of the Duelfer Report and its implications for multilateral and national export control efforts, that was published in the October/November 2004 issue of Asian Export Control Observer. She conducted research on the Department of Homeland Security’s new guidances on emergency response and recovery in the event of radiological terrorism.  The resulting article she wrote, “Cleanup After a Radiological Attack; U.S. Prepares Guidance’ appeared as special report in the Fall/Winter 2004 issue of The Nonproliferation Review. A shorter version of the report will be posted on the CNS website as a Research Story of the Week.  She worked with Dr. Lawrence Scheinman on a research project assessing the impact of dual-use, nonproliferation export controls on the economic development of industrializing countries.  She focused primarily on the Missile Technology Control Regime and conducted a literature review on the issue of dual-use technology transfer within the MTCR, developed a historical timeline of the regimes’ efforts to control missile technology, and developed a record of developing countries’ complaints about discrimination within the regime.  She assisted senior CNS staff members with an interview of Ambassador Carlos Sersale di Cerisano, the most recent chair of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), helped develop questions for the Ambassador, attended the interview, and prepared a transcript of the proceedings that she edited into a special report that will be published in the December/January edition of the CNS NIS Export Control Observer.  She researched the recent passage of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540, which obligates member states to criminalize the possession of WMD and related materials and enact domestic export controls to restrict the transfer of such items.  She focused on the April 2004 debate between the sponsors of the resolution and certain developing countries, exploring how objections to the resolution relate to a larger set of concerns about access to dual-use technology in the face of increasing efforts to control WMD.  She wrote up her findings in an article that will be published by CNS.  In collaboration with a CNS research assistant, she interviewed a technical expert at the Wassenaar Arrangement’s Secretariat on dual-use technology transfers as well as corresponded with several experts on this issue.  She maintained the CNS listserv on chemical and biological weapons and WMD terrorism, which involves reviewing multiple news sources and compiling relevant articles to send to over 3,000 subscribers, three times a week. She also archived the list serve materials in a CNS database that is available for public reference. She helped to organize and publicize a press briefing on the recent CNS book, The Four Faces of Nuclear Terrorism, which was held August 19, 2004.  She created publicity materials for the event, and updated the CNS press database.  She also attended the event, which featured a panel discussion about the risks of nuclear and radiological terrorist attack and strategies for protection against those risks.  She helped Leonard Spector prepare for an interview on ABC’s Nightline on the nuclear proliferation risks facing the new CIA Director and then attended the taping of the interview.  She researched the Jordanian export control system in preparation for a State Department training session on that system, conducted by Leonard Spector, and assisted him with the preparation of training materials for a briefing on the threat of weapons of mass destruction and the role of export controls in countering that threat.  She participated in CNS’s training seminar for the Export and Related Border Security (EXBS) Advisor assigned to work in Jordan, for which she had previously prepared the training materials.  She attended a full day of the training, which was taught by Leonard Spector, and contributed to discussions about the status of export controls in Jordan.

She attended the public symposium “Post-Cold War U.S. Nuclear Strategy: A Search for Technical and Policy Common Ground,” which was sponsored by the Committee on International Security and Arms Control at The National Academy of Sciences, as well as a lecture by Senator Richard Lugar at the National Press Club on nuclear nonproliferation priorities in an election year.  She attended a congressional briefing by Dr. Charles Ferguson on the book on nuclear terrorism as part of CNS’ Security for a New Century briefing series, and attended a lecture by Graham Allison on his new book, Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe.  She attended “The Road to Nuclear Security,” a panel discussion on current U.S. nuclear strategy with Robert McNamara, Lawrence Korb, and Joseph Cirincione at the Center for American Progress.

Current Activities: Eraker is a Policy Counsel at Google Inc. where she works on Internet-related policy and regulatory law and privacy legal issues. She graduated from the University of California at Berkeley School of Law in 2011 where she focused on Internet and technology law and public policy issues. In summer 2009 she clerked with the House Energy and Commerce Committee and the Federal Trade Commission. Previously she was a Policy Analyst at Google Inc. where she worked on a wide range of public policy issues impacting Google and the Internet community.

Toby Berkman

Spring 2004 Fellow, Henry L. Stimson Center

Education: Harvard University, JD/MPP, 2010
Harvard University, AB History & Literature, 2002

Issues Covered: UN peacekeeping; peace operations in Africa; European Union peace operations; global security spending; the protection of civilians during cases of ethnic cleansing, genocide and mass death

Major Fellowship Activities: Berkman worked on the Stimson Center’s “Future of Peace Operations” program that looks for practical solutions to improve international peace operations and post-conflict reconstruction worldwide. Mr. Berkman’s research focused on three main project areas: improving peacekeeping in Africa; evaluating the operational readiness of international militaries to uphold the “Responsibility to Protect” civilians in cases of genocide, ethnic cleansing and mass death; and collecting data on international security spending for the UN High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change.

For the project on building regional peacekeeping capacity in Africa, Berkman completed a 500-entry bibliography on African peacekeeping including sources from African, European and U.S. NGOs, scholarly journals, and various national governments. He also wrote summaries of all the current peace operations in Africa for the Stimson Center website, and helped organize a roundtable discussion with Dr. Joseph Collins, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, on the Global Peace Operations Initiative, a presidential initiative to train international peacekeepers, mostly within Africa.

The “Responsibility to Protect” project dealt with the protection of civilians from genocide, ethnic cleansing, and mass death. This project attempted to evaluate the operational capacity of national militaries and multinational organizations to engage in “civilian protection missions,” which would be carried out in non-permissive environments, where populations are at risk for large-scale violence. He helped to interview experts on the rule of law and military intervention, and conducted research for a paper evaluating the international response to cases of genocide and ethnic cleansing. He wrote or co-wrote and designed the section of the Stimson Center website on “Operational Capacities for Civilian Protection Missions.” He also organized a workshop with international military and civilian experts.

For the project on European Union peace operations, he wrote a Stimson Fact Sheet entitled “Funding for Post-Conflict Operations: NATO and the EU” and edited a number of Stimson publications. He also worked on a project for the UN High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change, collecting, organizing and evaluating statistics on global security spending in support of the Panel’s research division. Together with Stimson Senior Associate William Durch, he devised a comprehensive matrix for tabulating security spending worldwide that includes spending data on efforts to counter a number of security threats, from civil wars, to terrorism, to weapons of mass destruction. He was the primary author of a summary report of the statistical findings entitled Guide to Using the UN High-Level Panel Data CD. This analysis was recently utilized by the Panel in its recent report “A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility.”

He attended numerous conferences on peacekeeping and conflict in Africa. These included “The Great Lakes Policy Forum” with the Vice President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Ruberwa, at SAIS; “Preventing the Next Wave of Conflict: The Political Instability Task Force,” “Sexual Violence in the DRC,” talks on the humanitarian situation in Darfur, Sudan and a talk by Rwandan President Paul Kagame, all at the Woodrow Wilson Center; “Planning for Peace in Sudan,” testimony from the House Foreign Relations Committee by Gen. Romeo Dallaire on lessons from the 1994 Rwanda genocide, and “Addressing Gaps in Disarmament, Demobilization & Reintegration: Cases from the Field,” both at CSIS; “Elections in Afghanistan,” and “The Lone Ranger: America and Post-Conflict Stability Operations,” both at the U. S. Institute of Peace; and several Congressional hearings. More recently he attended a conference on Responsibility to Protect at the Woodrow Wilson Center, the Great Lakes Policy Forum on rule of law in the Great Lakes region of Africa at SAIS, a U.S. military briefing on the situation in Afghanistan at CSIS, a Partnership for Effective Peace Operations meetings at CSIS May 19 and June 17, the Great Lakes Policy Forum at SAIS, a conference on constabulary forces in peace operations at CSIS, a conference at USIP on US civilian capacity for post-conflict operations, a conference on peacekeeping in Africa at USIP, and a Center for Global Development conference at SAIS on “Promoting Human Security and Development in Weak States.” He wrote a summary of each conference for the other members of the Future of Peace Operations project team.

Current Activities: Berkman is an Associate at Jenner & Block LLP. He worked as a Law Clerk for the Honorable Denise Cote, United States Court for the Southern District of New York. He was previously an Associate with the Harvard Negotiation and Mediation Clinical Program (HNMCP) at Harvard Law School, where he taught and  consulted on negotiation, dispute resolution, and conflict management. The goal of the HNMCP is to train a new generation of lawyers with the skills they need to help clients manage disputes efficiently and creatively. The program works with a variety of client organizations — government, non-profit, and private, both domestic and international. In 2010 he graduated magna cum laude from Harvard Law School and from the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, where he earned a Master of Public Policy and focused on international law, security, and dispute resolution. In summer 2010 he delivered a conflict resolution training program to teenage victims of political violence from countries around the world. He was a Notes Editor on the Harvard Law Review, and published a student Note entitled “The Pakistani Lawyers’ Movement and the Popular Currency of Judicial Power” in the May 2010 issue of the Harvard Law Review and another in February 2009 entitled “Compensating Victims of Wrongful Detention, Torture, and Abuse in the U.S. War on Terror.” He was awarded the Zuckerman Fellowship, a full scholarship to the Kennedy School. In summer 2009 he worked at the ACLU’s National Legislative Office in Washington, DC, doing work on national security and detention issues.  In summer 2008 he worked at the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan in Lahore. He worked at the Special Court for Sierra Leone in summer 2007. Prior to entering graduate school he worked as a Research Assistant with the Stimson Center’s Future of Peace Operations Project since the completion of his fellowship.  He researched the rule of law in peacekeeping operations, U.N. sanctions regimes, and arms control in regions of conflict.  He co-authored two Stimson Center reports that were published in Fall 2006, Who Should Keep the Peace? Providing Security for 21st Century Peace Operations with William Durch and The Impossible Mandate? Military Preparedness, the Responsibility to Protect, and Modern Peace Operations with Victoria Holt.


Andrew Prosser

Spring 2004 Fellow, Center for Defense Information

Education: Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, PhD International Relations, 2010
Graduate Institute of International Studies, MA International Relations, 2002
Villanova University, BA Political Science and BS Mathematics, 2000

Issues Covered: Nuclear weapons and missile proliferation, non-proliferation and counter-proliferation policies; nuclear technology export controls; U.S. arms trade policy (especially regarding South Asia); humanitarian and human rights issues associated with the arms trade and armed conflict

Major Fellowship Activities: Prosser focused on the nexus between export control, non-proliferation policy and U.S. counterproliferation policy, and wrote several articles and reports for CDI that are posted on its website.  He researched and wrote a short analysis piece on U.S. arms transfers and military policy towards Pakistan, entitled “U.S. Arms Transfers to America’s Newest ‘Major Non-NATO Ally.'”  He also contributed case studies on U.S. military assistance to both Pakistan and India to CDI’s “Arms Trade” web page.  His research for these pieces included interviews with experts from several think tanks and government officials.  He attended a hearing of the House International Relations Committee and heard testimony from Assistant Secretary of State John Wolf on the potential admittance of China to the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), a multilateral export control regime that coordinates nuclear export guidelines among supplier countries.  He subsequently wrote another article for CDI’s “Nuclear Issues” web page entitled “Considering China as a Potential Member of the Nuclear Suppliers Group.”  He wrote two articles about nuclear proliferation and means to curtail such activity.  The first is entitled “The Proliferation Security Initiative in Perspective,” on a U.S.-led effort to interdict illicit sea, air and land-based WMD shipments. He conducted research on nuclear smuggling in South and Southeast Asia, and the role of international intelligence cooperation and export control efforts in curtailing the illicit trade in NBC weapons, materials and equipment.  He wrote “Nuclear Trafficking Routes: Dangerous Trends in Southern Asia,” which detailed nuclear and missile trafficking activities in South and Southeast Asia during the past 10 years; this research article was posted on CDI’s “Nuclear Issues” page.  He drafted an op-ed on the inadequacy of measures taken to bring to a halt the Khan nuclear smuggling network and associated agents’ activities.  He also authored a research piece titled “Iraq: Civilian Suffering in the Fallujah Assault” about the humanitarian effects of the fighting in Fallujah, Iraq in November 2004.  In addition to the articles for CDI, he co-wrote an op-ed, “The Need for Arms Transfer Restraint,” which was published in Defense News.  The op-ed voiced concerns about the U.S. delivery of major conventional weapons systems to authoritarian allies in the war on terrorism.  He was quoted in an article in Sea Power magazine (“Proliferation Security Initiative Seen as Start to Curbing Trade in Weapons of Mass Destruction,” November 2004).  In June 2004, he served as a rapporteur for the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace at its annual Nonproliferation Conference, which hosted talks by leading nuclear experts, including Hans Blix and Mohammed El-Baradei. He also spoke to a class of students at American University about careers in the field of peace and security.

He attended a lecture by the Pakistani ambassador to the U.S., Ashraf Jehangir Qazi, on U.S.-Pakistan Counterterrorism Efforts, at the Heritage Foundation.  He attended a Congressional briefing, “Pakistan and the Nuclear Supermarket: Assessing the Damage,” given by Husain Haqqani, former adviser to Prime Minister Bhutto, at the Dirksen Senate Office Building, a conference at the National Academy of Sciences (CISAC summer symposium), “Post-Cold War U.S. Nuclear Strategy: A Search for Technical and Policy Common Ground,” and a briefing, “Nuclear Security Strategy for the 21st Century,” by General Eugene Habiger (ret.), USAF, at the Center for International Trade and Security.  He also attended and participated in a meeting of the Arms Transfer Working Group, at which his article on Pakistan was circulated to the Group’s members.  He attended various segments of CDI’s annual Board meeting, including the CDI Board dinner where General Anthony Zinni gave a speech about the situation and U.S. policy in Iraq.  He attended the Luxembourg Group conference on Transatlantic Relations, held at the Woodrow Wilson Center and SAIS, as well as two panel discussions–one on failing states, and another on weapons proliferation.

Current Activities: Prosser is a Senior Analyst with the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) CBRN Risk Mitigation and Security Governance Programme in Geneva, Switzerland. UNICRI’s major goals include formulating and implementing improved policies in the field of crime prevention and criminal justice. Prosser’s position entails facilitating workshop discussions with national experts and guiding national officials in developing strategies for chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear risk mitigation, and analysis and elaborating the methodology for the Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Centers of Excellence, an initiative funded by the European Union.

He wrote “Status Ambitions and Iranian Nuclear Reversal” in Strategic Studies Quarterly in summer 2017. In May 2017 he gave two lectures, one entitled “Introduction to Chemical and Biological Materials and Weapons” and another entitled “Understanding the Risks of CBRN Terrorism’” at the UNICRI Specialized Course in Turin, Italy. He gave a presentation on “What are the Present and Future Risks in the Area of Biosafety and Biosecurity?” at a side event of the Eighth Review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention in Geneva in November 2016. He organized a panel discussion “Governing Security in the Global Information Age: Counteracting the Risks of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism,” and presented a paper entitled “Weapon of Mass Protection: Security Governance and the Non-state CBRN Threat,” at the Annual Convention of the International Studies Association in San Diego on April 1-4, 2012.

He received a PhD in International Relations in 2010 from the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, which is affiliated with the University of Geneva. He researched U.S. nonproliferation policy and nuclear policies in emerging nuclear states. His thesis is entitled “Nuclearization and Its Discontents: Status, Security, and the Pathways to Nuclear Reversal.” His doctoral thesis examines the question of why so many states have forsworn nuclear weapons. It applies quantitative methods and sociological insights on status and prestige to comprehend states’ nuclear choices.

He worked as a Graduate Assistant in the Political Science Dept. of the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies. In November 2006 he received first prize in the American Academy of Diplomacy’s 2006 Leonard Marks Essay Contest for Creative Thought and Writing on American Foreign Policy for his essay titled “Engaging Iran to Impose Limits on its Nuclear Program.”  As part of the prize, he met with Under Secretary for Political Affairs Nicholas Burns at the State Dept. to discuss his essay, and he also defended the essay before a distinguished panel of former US ambassadors at the American Academy of Diplomacy.  He wrote “Criminal Pursuits,” a letter to the editor in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (March/April 2007) about the A. Q. Khan network and state incentives to acquire nuclear weapons. He presented “The Paths to Restraint: Explaining Why States Abandon (or Embrace) the Nuclear Option,” Annual Jan Tinbergen European Peace Science Conference in Amsterdam in June 2007. In February-March 2006, he traveled to India with the help of a grant from the Tokyo Foundation (SYLFF Fellows Mobility Program). In India, he was a visiting fellow at Jawaharlal Nehru University and interviewed nuclear policy experts in New Delhi in support of his academic research. He is a member of the American Political Science Association, the International Studies Association, and the Peace Science Society International.