1999 Fellows

Philipp Bleek

Fall 1999 Fellow, Arms Control Association/Federation of American Scientists (program on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament)

Education: Georgetown University, PhD International Relations, 2010
Harvard University, MPP International Security and Political Economy, 2004
Princeton University, AB Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs with a certificate of proficiency in Environmental Studies, 1999

Issues Covered: Ballistic missile defense and proliferation; de-alerting of nuclear weapons; the comprehensive test ban, and fissile material protection, control, and accounting

Major Fellowship Activities: While at FAS, Bleek focused on ballistic missile defense and dealerting of nuclear weapons. He published three op-eds on national missile defense: “Missile Defense: A Dangerous Move” in the Washington Post and International Herald Tribune (with Frank von Hippel); “Missile Defense: A Threat to US Security”  (with Charles Ferguson) which was carried by the Knight-Ridder Syndicate and ran in the Miami Herald, Northeast Mississippi Daily Journal and Rome (GA) News-Tribune; and “Nuclear Dominoes,” through Scripps Howard News Service which was printed in the Deseret News and Nando Times.  Bleek also published two letters-to-the-editor: “Nuclear Stalemate” in the Washington Post and “More Reaction to the Test Ban Treaty Vote” in the Washington Times (with Charles Ferguson).  At ACA, Bleek worked on strategic nuclear issues, missile defense, the comprehensive test ban, and fissile material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A) efforts in the former Soviet Union.  He published several short articles in Arms Control Today including “US, Russia Negotiate Spent Fuel Reprocessing Moratorium,” “US, Russia Reassess Reactor Conversion Agreement,” “Russia Adopts New Security Concept; Appears to Lower Nuclear Threshold” and “After Stumble, HEU Deal Back on Track.”  He helped one of Senator John Kerry’s aides write a foreign policy speech in which the senator compared the U.S. and Chinese nuclear arsenals.  He was cited in an “Inside the Air Force” article: “Senate Armed Services Chief Declares Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Dead” arguing that while the CTBT may not be 100% verifiable, ratifying it is nonetheless in the best interests of the United States.   He attended the Carnegie Endowment’s International Non-Proliferation Conference 2000, and served as a rapporteur for the “Missile Defense: Will It Work?” panel.   He published a letter to the editor in the Los Angeles Times: “U.S. Nuclear Missile Shield” (with Charles Ferguson).

Current Activities: Bleek is an Associate Professor at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey and Fellow at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. His research and teaching focuses on the causes, consequences, and amelioration of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons proliferation. During the 2012-13 academic year, he will take a faculty leave to serve as Senior Advisor to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Defense Programs under a Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellowship in Nuclear Security. He has been accepted as a term member of the Council on Foreign Relations.

He was previously a Project on Managing the Atom/International Security Program Research Fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs.  He received a PhD in International Relations from the Department of Government at Georgetown University in 2010.  He focused on a range of nuclear weapons issues, from proliferation through deterrence.  His doctoral thesis is entitled “Does Proliferation Beget Proliferation? Why Nuclear Dominoes Rarely Fall.”  During the 2009-2010 academic year he was a Pre-Doctoral Research Fellow in the Project on Managing the Atom and International Security Program at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University to conduct dissertation research and writing.

He volunteered for the Obama Presidential campaign where he was a member of Nonproliferation Policy Committee.  He staffed the Missile Defense sub-group and participated in Strategic Nuclear Weapons, NPT/CTBT/FMCT, and Threat Reduction/Nunn Lugar sub-groups, and worked on talking points for debates and speeches.  In summer 2009 he was a Visiting Scholar at the John F. Kennedy Institut at Freie Universitat in Berlin, where he delivered a lecture entitled “President Obama: The Campaign and National Security Policy and Process,” and a Visiting Fellow at the Global Public Policy Institute also in Berlin where he spoke about “Assessing Reactive Proliferation: Why Nuclear Dominoes Rarely Fall.”

He was also a Nonresident Fellow at the Center for a New American Security, where he worked with former Secretary of the Navy Richard Danzig on U.S. bioterrorism strategy.  He previously worked as a Visiting Fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies where he also worked with Danzig on bioterrorism issues.  He was a recipient of the Hopper Memorial Fellowship that enabled him to teach an advanced undergraduate course at Georgetown University in fall 2007 entitled “Nuclear Weapons in International Politics: Theory, History, Technology, and Policy.”  He was a participant at Columbia University’s Summer Workshop on Analysis of Military Operations and Strategy (SWAMOS).  In summer 2004 he worked at the Nuclear Threat Initiative, completing work on a paper on securing civil nuclear material stockpiles, whose working title is “Global Cleanout: An Emerging Approach to the Civil Nuclear Material Threat,” which was published as an Occasional Paper by Harvard University.  A draft version of the paper was used as the basis for an episode of the TV program The West Wing that first aired on November 10, 2004.  Prior to attending graduate school he was a Research Analyst with the Arms Control Association where he researched and wrote about arms control and non-proliferation developments, and provided information and analysis on arms control policy to the media, the public and government, and wrote regularly for Arms Control Today.  He wrote “Missile Defense is a Pipe Dream” which appeared in The Boston Globe.  He attended the Carnegie Endowment’s International Non-Proliferation Conference 2000, and served as a rapporteur for the “Missile Defense: Will It Work?” panel.  Bleek has been interviewed on security issues by CTV (Canadian television network), Voice of America, DeutschlandRadio (national German radio), Radio New Zealand, and Radio Netherlands, among others.  He has been cited on security issues in news stories published in the Christian Science Monitor, Newsday, Canada’s Globe and Mail, and other newspapers.


Stephanie Broughton

Fall 1999 Fellow, Women’s Action for New Directions

Education: University of Port Elizabeth (South Africa), M Phil Conflict Management, 2003
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, BA Political Science and Economics, 1999

Issues Covered: Mixed-oxide fuel; nuclear waste

Major Fellowship Activities: Broughton’s primary issue areas were mixed-oxide fuel, nuclear waste and Project Abolition, a series of public awareness activities surrounding the 10th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, for which she helped construct the “Wall of Denial,” a 200-foot plywood replica of the Berlin Wall built on the National Mall.  She helped mobilize support for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, developed an action alert for WAND’s email list and a model press release for state legislators to use in preparing for CTBT-related press conferences, and attended hearings of the Senate Armed Forces Foreign Relations committees.  She assisted in coordinating the involvement of WAND and WiLL members in meetings on MOX in southeastern states.  She prepared organizational testimony for WiLL on the Yucca Mountain Draft Environmental Impact Statement, which will be included in the public record.  She met with state legislators from North and South Carolina about MOX, nuclear waste, and plans to build a reactor in their states.  She prepared folders about MOX targeted to North and South Carolina residents including basic fact sheets and local newspaper clips.  She co-wrote a short article about the Parallex plutonium shipment scheduled to go through Michigan for the NIX MOX Bulletin, a monthly email report.  She prepared state-specific flyers about nuclear waste transportation issues for distribution at information tables at concerts of the Indigo Girls.  She worked on researching National Missile Defense, military spending and stockpile stewardship in preparation for a series of factsheets for the women candidates that WAND will endorse or consider endorsing in the coming year.  She attended a symposium at the Brookings Institution about the end of the Cold War, a day-long Project Abolition meeting with all project participants and the Coolfont retreat for peace and arms control groups. She wrote and designed an informational flyer on nuclear waste for use in a WiLL action.  She spoke about mixed oxide fuel at FCNL’s “First Friday” lecture series for interns.  She began working with a WAND activist on preparing a postcard directed at Duke Energy shareholders.  She wrote two articles for the WAND Bulletin on CTBT activities and Project Abolition.  She also attended the launch of the Women Waging Peace program through Women in International Security.  She helped prepare for the organization’s biannual national conference with its sister organization, the Women Legislators’ Lobby (WiLL) by scheduling visits in Congressional offices for the visiting state delegations, and helping prepare briefing materials for conference attendees.  She attended the conference, including a lecture on federal budget priorities, and a dinner centered on nuclear weapons and waste issues.

Current Activities: Broughton is a Manager in the Relief & Reconstruction Division at IRG, an L-3 Communications company.  IRG is an international professional services firm that helps governments, the private sector, communities, and households manage critical resources to build a cleaner, safer, and more prosperous world.  Within the Relief and Reconstruction Division, Stephanie manages a large IQC that focuses on providing support to countries undergoing political transition.  This involves providing technical assistance to field programs, developing guidance documents, and preparing proposals for new programs.  She was previously the West Africa Gender Project Manager at International Alert, an independent peacebuilding organization that works directly with people affected by violent conflict as well as at government, EU and UN levels, to lay the foundations for lasting peace and security in communities affected by violent conflict.  She managed two regional programs in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea to promote the participation of women in peacebuilding processes and the effective redress for victims of gender-based violence.  She was previously Interim Director of the European Peacebuilding Liaison Office (EPLO).  EPLO is the platform of European NGOs, networks of NGOs and think tanks active in the field of peacebuilding, who share an interest in promoting sustainable peacebuilding policies among decision-makers in the European Union.  She has also worked as a Policy Officer responsible for coordinating and facilitating advocacy on thematic peacebuilding issues such as gender, development, and investment, among other issues, as well as representing the network in various public fora, and as a Program Support Officer and Administration and Finance Officer with the International Organization for Migration (IOM) where she worked on a post-conflict transition program in the Republic of Haiti.  This followed on to work as a Program Assistant in a similar program in Macedonia, also with IOM.  She completed her Masters Degree in Conflict Management form the University of Port Elizabeth in South Africa where she worked with the Center for the Study and Resolution of Conflict on a series of non-violent communication training in public schools.  These studies were made possible by a Rotary International Ambassadorial Scholarship. Immediately following her Fellowship, she was hired by WAND where she worked as the Director of the Nuclear Abolition Resolution Project.  In this capacity she worked to facilitate cooperative efforts between grass-roots activists and state legislators in order to pass resolutions calling for the abolition of nuclear weapons.


Denise Groves

Fall 1999 Fellow, Center for Defense Information

Education: Georgetown University, MA National Security Studies, 1999
Ohio State University, BA International Studies and History, 1997

Issues Covered: Conventional arms trade; conflict prevention and resolution

Major Fellowship Activities: Groves researched and wrote a monograph entitled “Rebuilding the Future: Child Soldiers and Sustainable Development.”  The monograph outlines the challenges associated with and the need for practical and sustainable disarmament programs for child ex-combatants.   She also wrote several articles for CDI’s Weekly Defense Monitor, “The Kosovo Liberation Army: Demilitarized or Transformed?” “Protecting Civilians in Somalia,” and “Waging the Peace in Kosovo.” She attended a reception for a psychotherapist from Mozambique who runs an organization devoted to caring for former child soldiers.  She also attended a press briefing on Capital Hill on the campaign to increase the international legal age of military service to 18.

Current Activities: Groves worked for Transparency International in Berlin.  She was a Robert Bosch Foundation Fellow  in September 2002 that allowed her to do two internships, one each in a private and a public institution in Germany.  Previously she worked as a Project Manager at the Conflict Prevention Network in Berlin, Germany.  CPN is  an organization funded by the European Commission which works directly for the European Union institutions.  They focus specifically on analyzing and reporting to the EU on conflict prevention issues.  Prior to her current position, she worked as a researcher at the Berlin Information Center for Transatlantic Security (BITS) in Berlin, on the issue of the Common European Security and Defense Policy.   While at BITS she wrote a research report entitled “The European Union’s Common Foreign, Security, and Defense Policy,” and several Policy Notes including “National Missile Defense: An Issue for the World – But Not for America,”  “The True Meaning of Failure”   and “National Missile Defense Under Attack.”  She co-wrote an article entitled “Europe’s NMD Dilemma” which appears in the Global Beat Syndicate, an on-line publication of the Center for War, Peace, and the News Media at NYU, some of which are distributed by the Knight Ridder/Tribune (KRT) News Service as part of their Op-Ed service.  She also wrote two articles which appeared (in translation) in Freitag, a weekly German newspaper: “Alter Wein in neuen Schläuchen” about U.S. election politics and the Bush and Gore foreign policies; and an article entitled “Raketenabwehr unter Beschuss.”  The article describes the American, European, and Russian points of view on NMD and the significance of the issue for international security.   A version of the monograph written during her Fellowship appeared in the National Security Studies Quarterly (Autumn 2000) as “Child Soldiers and the Transition to Peace.”


Christina Ellington Arnold

Spring 1999 Fellow, National Security Archive

Education: Monterey Institute for International Studies, MA International Policy Studies, 1998
Santa Clara University, BS Political Science, 1995

Issues Covered: U.S. nuclear history; India-Pakistan nuclear project

Major Fellowship Activities: Ellington conducted research for two projects, U.S. nuclear history and an India-Pakistan nuclear project.  She did background reading on U.S. nuclear weapons policy, U.S.-Soviet relations, India’s perspective on the nuclear issue, and India’s nuclear history.  On both projects she cataloged declassified government documents and worked on chronologies of events. On the India-Pakistan project, she prepared several Freedom of Information Act requests.  She conducted a literature search in order to put together a bibliography of recent publications on India-Pakistan nuclear developments in the 1990s.  For the Nuclear History project, she used government documents dating from 1968 forward to work on the chronology.

Current Activities: Ellington is an analyst with the Federal Government. Prior to her Fellowship she worked at the Center for Nonproliferation Studies on a project entitled “South Africa’s Nuclear Weapons Program.”


Christopher Gagne

Spring 1999 Fellow, Henry L. Stimson Center

Education: Boston College Law School, JD, 2005
Dickinson College, BA Anthropology and Policy Studies, 1998

Issues Covered: Effects of the nuclear tests in India and Pakistan on the non-proliferation regime; confidence building measures in South Asia

Major Fellowship Activities: Gagne worked on a project dealing with confidence building measures in South Asia.  He assisted with the South Asia International Forum web site, helped to organize talks delivered at the Stimson Center, attended meetings and press conferences on South Asia and occasionally transcribed them, attended meetings on Theater Missile Defense at the Stimson Center, and edited publications and op-ed pieces for Stimson Research Associates.  He helped to organize a talk by Dr. Farooq Abdullah, the Chief Minister of Kashmir.

Current Activities: Gagne is an Associate with Crowell & Moring, LLP in Washington, DC.  He works in their Government Contracts and International Trade practice groups. Much of his work is for defense contractors with a particular focus on contract litigation and export control compliance.  Through Crowell & Moring’s pro bono program, he is also involved with the Project on National Security Reform, a broad-based, non-partisan effort to facilitate agency integration in the national security arena.  He was a Legal Intern with the Military Analysis Team in the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in Spring 2005.  While at BC Law School, he was a writer and articles editor for the BC Third World Law Journal.  He published a Note in the BC Third World Law Journal entitled “POTA: Lessons Learned from India’s Anti-Terror Act” which was released this spring. From Jan to May 2005, he worked as a legal intern with the military analysis team in the Office of the Prosecutor at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague, Netherlands.  He previously worked as a Research Associate at the Stimson Center where he was hired at the end of his Fellowship.  He worked as a research assistant to Michael Krepon, monitoring India and Pakistan’s nuclear weapons programs.  He moderated the Southern Asia Internet Forum, a cross border Internet dialogue on Southern Asian security issues, where he was responsible for editing comments, deciding which ones to post and posting questions to participants.  He also coordinated the Stimson Center’s visiting fellows program, helping to arrange meetings with prominent people in the security field for journalists, academics, researchers and military officers from India, Pakistan, China and Japan.  He co-edited a Stimson Center report with Michael Krepon entitled “The Stability-Instability Paradox: Nuclear Weapons and Brinksmanship in South Asia” and wrote one of the chapters.   He also co-edited a Stimson Center report entitled “Economic Confidence-Building and Regional Security.”  He serves on the Fellowship’s board of directors.

Kalev Kaseoru

Spring 1999 Fellow. World Federalist Association

Education: University of California Hastings College of the Law, JD, 2011
University of Maryland, BA Government and Politics, 1998
University of Maryland, BA Psychology, 1997

Issues Covered: International Criminal Court;  Campaign to End Genocide Project

Major Fellowship Activities: Kaseoru focused on the International Criminal Court and the Campaign to End Genocide Project.  He worked on projects to decrease defense spending, and supported preventive diplomacy and peace building. He produced a survey of alternative proposals for funding U.N. peacekeeping, (“The Cost of Peace: Alternative for Funding U.N. Peace Activities”) which was circulated and used for a talk at the Hague Appeal for Peace. He wrote a short paper on the ICC, arguing that it is not contrary to U.S. interests. He also wrote and provided research for two articles for WFA’s quarterly newsletter (July 1999).

Current Activities: Kaseoru has been an Assistant Public Defender in Prince George’s County, Maryland since 2012, and represents individuals in the county who are charged with serious felonies and are unable to afford private legal counsel. He is a Felony Trial Attorney, handling serious felony matters in Prince George’s County Circuit Court. He is a member of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers (NACDL) and Maryland Criminal Defense Attorneys Association (MCDAA). He was previously a law clerk at the Prince George’s County Public Defender’s office and was admitted to the Maryland State Bar in December 2011. He graduated from the University of California Hastings College of the Law in May 2011 with a concentration certificates in Social Justice and Criminal Law and Outstanding Achievement in Pro-bono.  He volunteered at the General Assistance Advocacy Project, which consists of helping low income and marginalized citizens obtain benefits, and was one of the two Student Co-Presidents of G.A.A.P. in his 3L year.  He was an elected representative of the school student government in his first and second years as well as its Treasurer during his 3L year.  He was a member of the Hastings Race & Poverty Law Journal his 2L and 3L years as well as a Senior Notes Editor and the Acquisitions Editor for his 3L year.  Through his work with the group Hastings Homeless Legal Services he was able to assist two homeless individuals obtain permanent housing.  Throughout law school he interned at three different public defender’s offices.  Previously, he graduated from the Georgetown University Summer Intensive Paralegal Certificate Program and worked as a litigation Paralegal with O’Melveny & Myers, LLP in Washington, DC.